12 Gods And Goddesses Of Greek And Roman Mythology

12 Gods And Goddesses Of Greek And Roman Mythology – The central place in the oldest Roman pantheon belongs to the trinity of Jupiter, Mars and Quirinus, as well as Janus and Vesta. In the beginning, they had no personal qualities, wives and backgrounds. Furthermore, they are not considered human-like and therefore there are only a few stories about their actions. However, new elements were added relatively soon. The family of Tarquinius is said to have created the Capitoline Triad of Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva. The Trinity had a dominant position in Roman religion.

The gods were the main religion of Rome, their names and personalities associated with the titles of the first priests and fixed holidays in the Roman calendar.

12 Gods And Goddesses Of Greek And Roman Mythology

12 Gods And Goddesses Of Greek And Roman Mythology

In the pantheon of early Roman gods, the gods were also named for specific situations, and the name was often derived from a verb describing an ongoing activity. They can be considered as secondary gods, in addition to the main gods they are also called.

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The enormous number of gods and goddesses in the Roman religion was complemented by many deities that included some common concepts, images, qualities, and emotions. In this area, Roman religion was very creative and rich.

Along with the Greek gods, a number of Eastern rituals came to Rome, especially as the empire conquered new lands such as Africa and Asia. But the acquisition of a new cult took place.

Roman Gods (picture). In 217 BC, 12 major gods were established to imitate Greek religion: Jupiter, Juno, Neptune, Minerva, Mars, Venus, Apollo, Diana, Vulcan, Vesta, Mercury, Ceres.

The Capitoline triad is made up of three gods: Jupiter, like Zeus, his wife Juno (like Hera) and Minerva (like Athena).

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The first religious changes took place during the dynasty – this was a time of Etruscan influence. Their religion played an important role in Roman history. Even during the reign of Claudius Etruscan, Disciplina was highly regarded, as Tacitus testified.

The greatest influence on Rome and all of Italy was the Etruscan trinity consisting of Tinia, Ioni, and Minerva. This trio became very important after the construction of the Capitoline temple for Jupiter, Juno and Minerva in Rome. The temple was built by Etruscan architects in their own style, and the famous statue of Jupiter, called Tinia, was made by Volka from the city of Veii.

Known from many sources has a special meaning for all Italians. It includes the following parts:

12 Gods And Goddesses Of Greek And Roman Mythology

. It discusses many topics in detail, for example: How to create new cities, build temples or perform administrative tasks, how to interpret the sky or how to make predictions from animal content. It also includes Bronchoscopy Schedule.

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Etruscan religion was the main cause of the religious changes that Rome underwent. It was the Etruscans who taught the Romans how to carve out the extraordinary images of the gods to this day and present them in the form of statues and statues in human form. At that time, the first temples built in the Etruscan style appeared. Thanks to the Etruscans, the Romans went from animism and ancient animism to humanism. Many of the first deities worshiped for centuries have disappeared and passed into history, others have changed their shape and adjusted their appearance to new ideas and new myths.

Greek influence on Roman religion began as early as the fifth century BC. This happened thanks to the development of commercial and political connections. Greek myths and beliefs began to gain popularity. Besides the native gods, so to speak

And so the Roman and Greek gods mixed together. The Sibylline Book is instrumental in this process. Sibyl is Gaia’s prophetess. He is a resident of the city

Consider the legend of Roman Sibyl: One day, in the palace of the Roman king, Tarquinius Superbus, an old woman appeared carrying nine heavy books. He asked the king if he wanted to buy it. When she asked about the price, he offered a very high price which made her laugh. In response, the woman burned and discarded three books. Then he asked him again if he wanted to buy the rest at the same price. And the king refused again, and he burned the next three books. He repeated the question a third time, and then Tarquinius realized that there must be many secrets hidden in the books and bought them. Then he placed it in the Capitol and gave it to two priests. Over time, the number of priests increased to 10 and then 15. They often interpret divine prophecies based on signs they call miracles. Following the senate’s decision, the priests found objections in Sibylline’s books, which often involved the introduction of new denominations, especially in Greek.

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The first decision made based on the books of Sibylline was to commit to building a temple on Aventine in 496 BC for the trinity of Ceres, Liber and Libra. It is an agricultural triad identified with a Greek Eleusinian triad of Dionysus, Demeter and Persephone. This oath was taken the first year after the Tarquin kings were exiled, when Rome suffered a natural disaster – the books of Sibyl were consulted immediately. The priests announced the following answer: The punishment of starvation will last as long as you honor the Greek trinity: Dionysus, Demeter and Persephone.

So a divine family arose in Rome, and in order for people to believe in those foreign gods, their cult merged with the ancient Roman goddess of plants and fertility, Ceres, has a son, Liber. He is identified as Dionysus and Libra is Demeter’s daughter, Persephone.

The ancient religion did not recognize Mercury, whose sect later developed in Rome, with the growth of trade as Rome’s influence reached lands outside Italy. It is unclear how this happened – whether he was brought from Greece with the help of the Sibyl oracles, but he quickly began to resemble the Greek Hermes.

12 Gods And Goddesses Of Greek And Roman Mythology

The temple of Mercury (and the temple of Maya – his mother) is located near Circus Maximus, which is also sacred to him. Her festival is held in May, followed by ceremonies honoring Maia, the ancient Italian goddess, wife of Vulcan – it’s not uncommon for people to mix the two goddesses and treat them as one god. God. And this is what happened – soon the two words Maya, Italic and Roman became one in the minds of the Romans.

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Fortuna was a goddess worshiped alongside Mercury, who took on greater importance as she became known as the Greek Tyche. There are two theories about how his cult entered Rome. The first said it was brought by King Ancus Marcius. The latter said that this king was Servius Tullius, the son of a slave who, when he was happy to ascend the throne, built many churches and altars, as well as two temples of Fortuna, for he was grateful for his care. mind and distinction. A temple outside the city, on the right bank of the Tiber, is the second – the Forum Boarium. His holiday is celebrated on June 24.

As Greek teachings, legends, and rituals spread to Rome, new mysteries were held for Ceres, known as Cerealia. The story is based on the myth of the kidnapping of Proserpina (Persephone), daughter of Ceres (Demeter) by Pluto (Hades).

In 249 BC (in 505 after the founding of the city), during the Punic War, when Rome was in danger, ten priests of Sibyl were ordered by the Senate to ask the oracle what to do. . The oracle replied that the Romans would hold games in honor of Proserpina and a god named Dis-Patter. On May 21 there is a festival called Agonalia, the festival of Vejuvis, the god of the underworld.

Vejuvis and Dispater, despite their Latin names, resemble the Greek Hades—and their cult also reached Rome under Greek influence. At that time, the entire world of the dead was already formed in the consciousness of the Romans, although according to the beliefs of the Greeks, eg. Thanatos, the Greek child of the night, the embodiment of death in Roman mythology became the Moors, and Erinyes, the god of vengeance, became Wrath.

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Along with the Greek gods, Greek heroes came to Rome, and the greatest was Heracles, known in Rome as Hercules. His cult spread with the Greek colonists of the peninsula when it eventually conquered all of Italy. The ancient altar of Hercules, called the Ara Maxima (Great Altar) near the Palatine in the Forum Boarium, not far away

When Hercules returned home from tending Geryon’s livestock, he passed Evander’s residence. Because he was tired from the journey, he decided to rest under the shade of a tree. Soon he fell asleep and then a giant named Cacus appeared. Seeing the herd of bulls full, the monster decided to steal them and hide in his den. To deceive Hercules, he lured them with their stories to get off the wrong path. Meanwhile, when Hercules wakes up, he realizes that part of his army is missing. He began to follow the path of clones

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