Chitwan National Park: Wildlife Encounters In The Terai Plains

Chitwan National Park: Wildlife Encounters In The Terai Plains – The first national park of Nepal, Chitwan National Park, was established in 1973. With the status of a world heritage site in 1973, it is located in the interior of the terai of south-central Nepal covering an area of ​​952.63 sq km and a conservation area of ​​729.37. sq km It is spread over four different districts, Nawalpur, Parasi, Chitwan and Makanpur of Nepal. Its altitude varies from 100m to 815m from the river valley to the Sivalik hills. The Narayani and Rapti rivers separate the park from villages in the north and west of the protected area, while the Indian Tiger Reserve covers the eastern border and the Valmiki National Park Indian Tiger Reserve covers the park from the southern side. Chitwan National Park has a large variety of flora and fauna resulting in a diverse ecosystem. Today, Chitwan National Park is the best wildlife park you will ever see as it has become a home to many birds, animals and plants. It is best known for the one-horned Rhinoceros, but other animals such as the Royal Bengal Tiger, Sloth Bear, Leopard, and various species of reptiles and birds also live here.

According to the villagers, Chitwan National Park was the best hunting ground for the ruling families of Nepal in the 19th century. of the forest. It was opened for human settlement and game hunting when people started migrating to the Chitwan valley in search of agricultural land. Before the introduction of proper transportation, people walked for weeks to reach national parks. Making camps and hunting the animals they encountered was something people did for many months in the past. About 800 rhinos lived in the National Park in the late 1950s when the grasslands and forests were expanded to more than 2,600 square kilometers. Laws were introduced to protect rhinos and their habitats in 1957, but by the end of the 1960s, about 70% of the forest had been cleared and DDT had eradicated malaria. The number of human habitats increased while the number of rhinos decreased to 95. The sharp decline in the number of rhinos attracted the attention of the government and the introduction of Gaida Gasti. In order to prevent the extermination of the rhino, the national park of Chitwan was declared in 1970 with a land boundary in 1973. After the creation of the National Park, the Tharu people living around or inside the park were forced by the Mae’r government to away from the gun. The houses were set on fire and elephants ransacked the fields. All rights and entitlements to land within the park’s boundaries have been denied, leaving the Tharu community reeling under poverty. The national park was expanded to an area of ​​952.63 square kilometers (Present area) in 1977. A zoo and game reserve were established near Kasara, the headquarters of the park. A breeding ground for one of Nepal’s endangered species, the vulture sanctuary was established in 2008 to house up to 25 pairs of Gypsy vultures.

Chitwan National Park: Wildlife Encounters In The Terai Plains

Chitwan National Park: Wildlife Encounters In The Terai Plains

Chitwan National Park located in the central climate zone of the Himalayas enjoys a monsoon climate throughout the year with high humidity. Temperatures warm up to 43 °C in March and June. The fear of rains is caused by the middle of June and disappears at the end of September when most of the annual rain of 2,500 mm falls, flooding the roads and making them impassable. The monsoon clouds recede and leave the water after mid-October. Until the end of December, daytime temperatures range from 36 °C (97 °F) to 18 °C (64 °F) while night temperatures cool to 5 °C (41 °F). The local community is allowed to cut the grass in late January to meet the needs of the community to promote a better wildlife view for visitors.

Royal Chitwan National Park Safari

About 70% of the Chitwan National Park is covered by Sal trees since it is the Himalayan foothill forest in the interior of the Terai. The well-drained middle layers contain the cleanest areas of the Salboom. Local people often use the leaves of the Sal tree to make the dishes during sacrifices and religious festivals. Other Chitwan National Parks are covered with vegetation which is 20%. The southern slope of the park is Sal dotted with Chir pines, while the northern slopes are covered with small flowering trees and shrubs such as Beleric, Axlewood, Rosewood, etc. and climbers such as Spatholobus parviflorus and Bauhinia vahlii More than 50 species of plants can be found in the garden. Among these, the elephant grass (Sacchrum spp) is famous for its extreme height as it can grow up to 8m in length. Many other types of plants can also be found in the garden. Every year, monsoons wash Kans green grass, which is the first grass to gather new grass.

Chitwan National Park has become a sanctuary for more than 700 species of wild animals. There are 17 other species of lizards, and star tortoises here as well as king cobras and rock climbers. An incredible number of butterflies, moths and insect species live in the park. 113 species of fish and predatory crocodiles have been recorded as inhabitants of the Narayani-Rapti river system and several water bodies. As many as 235 were recorded in the Narayani River in the early 1950s, which has drastically reduced to 38 in 2003. As a result, gharia eggs are collected from the river banks to be farmed. birth of the Gharial Conservation Project. Animals are raised there from six to nine years.

Chitwan National Park is home to 68 species of animals. The floodplains of the terai are the best places in the world for tigers. “Bengal Tiger”, known as the king of the forest, lived in Chitwan National Park in a small number from 25 to 70-110 individuals in 1980, but it declined in some years due to trampling and flooding . According to information collected by camera traps, the density of tigers varies between 4.44 and 6.35 individuals per 100 square km in 2010 and 2011 and it was concluded that the seasonal activity patterns of tigers are the most little during the day is when they are discovered. have a peed. the people.

Indian tigers live in tigers that live only in the boundaries of the park. The clouded black tiger was spotted and captured outside the protected area in 1988 and later released into the park. About 200 to 250 sloth bears can be found in Chitwan, which has the highest density of sloth bears. Sharp-toothed otters, Bengal foxes, spotted lynxes and honey badgers are seen roaming the forest in search of prey. In the south of Churia mountain, the belted hyena can be seen. A camera trap survey in 2011 recorded that the southern and western slopes of the park are occupied by wild dogs, fishing cats, wild cats, Asian palm otters, golden foxes, crab-eating mongooses, leopard cats and – red color. The number of Indian rhinoceros has increased to 544 individuals since 1973. During epidemics, the animals migrate from Chitwan every year to Bardia National Park and Shuklaphata National Park to ensure the survival and protection of the species. endangered since 1986. But still, the rhino population is decreasing due to illegal hunting practices. 37 rhinos were killed in 2002 for their valuable horns alone. Chitwan is home to India’s largest rhino population. About 605 to 645 rhinos were recorded in Nepal in 2015.

Chitwan National Park

In the south of the national park, the Churia hills have become the home of the Gaurs (Indian Bison). They spend most of their time in the mountains of Churia, but in the spring, they come down to the grasslands and the sea to eat and feed. Between 1997 and 2016, the number of the world’s largest animal species increased from 188 to 368. Another 112 animals were recorded in the Parsa Game Reserve. Animals are allowed to roam between these two enclosures. In addition to these endangered species, another large number of wild animals, sambar deer, red muntjac, wild boar and four-horned goat live here. It also became home to animals like Rhesus Monkeys, Indian Porcupines, Indian Pangolins, Gray Langurs, and many other species of flying squirrels, Indian rabbits and flying rabbits.

Chitwan National Park was listed as a habitat for 543 bird species in 2006. About 2/3 of the world’s threatened bird species are found in Nepal in the national park. In the spring of 2008, 20-year-old Yuhina,

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